Наука и техника

Биологи доказали способность рыб перемещаться по суше

Теорию эволюции жизни на Земле в очередной раз подтвердили австралийские учёные из Университета Южного Уэльса. Они выяснили, что, по крайней мере, одна представительница из 33 семейств рыб является земноводной, т.е. может жить одновременно в воде и на суше. Согласно исследованиям учёных, 130 различных видов рыб могут передвигаться по земле. Это и американский угорь, который может переползать из пруда в пруд, и бычок-буйвол, который меняет водоём при понижении концентрации кислорода в воде. Известен также илистый прыгун, чьё название говорит само за себя. А рыбы семейства собачковых вообще могут лазить по скалам, цепляясь за камни, благодаря наличию чашевидных плавников. Другой вид рыб семейства собачковых живёт на берегу во время отливов рек.
Ранее считалось, что около 400 миллионов лет назад единственный вид рыб вышел на сушу, дав начало происхождению земноводных. Сейчас же научно доказано, что эту унаследованную от общего предка способность сохранили до наших дней представители различных семейств рыб. Чаще всего она встречается в литоральной зоне – прибрежном участке, который переживает сезонные приливы и отливы.
Кроме того, учёные из Университета Макгилл (Канада) поставили эксперимент над рыбами семейства многопёровых. Это семейство африканских рыб более всего напоминает древних земноводных, которые первыми вышли на сушу. Рыбы могут дышать воздухом и «прогуливаться» по земле. Когда в качестве эксперимента мальков многопёровых подержали год без воды, у них стали наблюдаться анатомические изменения – выделилась голова, плавники видоизменились, скелет удлинился и расширился (чтобы увеличить поддержку во время ходьбы).
Ханс Ларсон, заведующий кафедрой макроэволюции Университета Макгилл, рассказал: «Это первый пример, который демонстрирует пластичность развития и эволюционный переход к новым анатомическим характеристикам и поведению, которые в дальнейшем могли быть зафиксированы генетически».


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